Prof Steffi Krause

Steffi Krause
Dr. rer. nat., MRSC

Professor of Electroanalytical Systems

School of Engineering and Materials Science
Queen Mary University of London
ResearcherID ORCID Google Scholar LinkedIn


Photoelectrochemical imaging, Light-addressable potentiometric sensors, Light-activated electrochemistry, Biosensors, Live-cell imaging


My research focuses on the development of chemical and biological sensors and electrochemical imaging.

Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors (LAPS) and Scanning Photo-induced Impedance Microscopy (SPIM) are imaging techniques based on photocurrent measurements at electrolyte/insulator/silicon (EIS) field-effect structures. They are capable of measuring local changes in the surface potential (LAPS), which can be used to image ion concentrations, and of measuring the local impedance (SPIM). Recent highlights of our research are the achievement of submicron resolution of photocurrent measurements at silicon-on-sapphire substrates using a two-photon effect, the increase in the sensitivity of SPIM using organic, self-assembled monolayers as insulators, the use of SPIM for the interrogation of biosensor arrays for the detection of charged molecules such as DNA, quantitative impedance imaging of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with high resolution and the measurement of cell surface charge and cell impedance.

Recent development of photoelectrochemical imaging with semiconducting metal oxide substrates such as indium tin oxide and hematite allows detection of redox active molecules and hence a much broader range of analytes than with traditional EIS structures. Combined with a recently developed fast imaging setup, the technique has shown great potential for continuous functional electrochemical imaging of the attachment area of cells, providing information such as ion concentration, action potentials and cell membrane permeability. Photoelectrochemical imaging is particularly attractive for label-free in-situ monitoring in in-vitro models.


Relevant PublicationPublications of specific relevance to the Centre for Bioengineering


Relevant PublicationGorecki J and Krause S (2023). Numerical investigation of a graphene-on-semiconductor device for optical monitoring of cell electrophysiology. iScience, Elsevier vol. 27 (1) 


Relevant PublicationJacques R, Zhou B, Marhuenda E, Gorecki J, Das A, Iskratsch T and Krause S (2022). Photoelectrochemical imaging of single cardiomyocytes and monitoring of their action potentials through contact force manipulation of organoids. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier 
Relevant PublicationZhou B, Jiang Y, Guo Q, Das A, Jorge Sobrido A, Hing K, Zayats A and Krause S (2022). Photoelectrochemical Detection of Calcium Ions Based on Hematite Nanorod Sensors. ACS Applied Nano Materials, American Chemical Society 
Relevant PublicationMeng Y, Chen F, Wu C, Krause S, Wang J and Zhang DW (2022). Light-Addressable Electrochemical Sensors toward Spatially Resolved Biosensing and Imaging Applications. ACS Sensors, American Chemical Society 


Relevant PublicationWan K, Liu Y, Santagiuliana G, Barandun G, Taroni Junior P, Güder F, Bastiaansen CWM, Baxendale M, Fenwick O, Papageorgiou DG, Krause S, Zhang H and Bilotti E (2021). Self-powered ultrasensitive and highly stretchable temperature–strain sensing composite yarns. Materials Horizons 
Relevant PublicationZhou B, Das A, Zhong M, Guo Q, Zhang D-W, Hing KA, Sobrido AJ, Titirici M-M and Krause S (2021). Photoelectrochemical imaging system with high spatiotemporal resolution for visualizing dynamic cellular responses. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier vol. 180 


Relevant PublicationTu Y, Kyle C, Luo H, Zhang DW, Das A, Briscoe J, Dunn S, Titirici MM and Krause S (2020). Ammonia Gas Sensor Response of a Vertical Zinc Oxide Nanorod-Gold Junction Diode at Room Temperature. ACS Sensors vol. 5 (11), 3568-3575.  


bullet iconZhou B, Das A, Kappers M, Oliver R, Humphreys C and Krause S (2019). InGaN as a substrate for AC photoelectrochemical imaging. Sensors, MDPI 
Relevant PublicationWang J, Yang Z, Chen W, Du L, Jiao B, Krause S, Wang P, Wei Q, Zhang D-W and Wu C (2019). Modulated light-activated electrochemistry at silicon functionalized with metal-organic frameworks towards addressable DNA chips. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier vol. 146, 111750-111750.  
bullet iconWan K, Taroni PJ, Liu Z, Liu Y, Tu Y, Santagiuliana G, Hsia I, Zhang H, Fenwick O, Krause S, Baxendale M, Schroeder BC and Bilotti E (2019). Flexible and Stretchable Self‐Powered Multi‐Sensors Based on the N‐Type Thermoelectric Response of Polyurethane/Na x (Ni‐ett) n Composites. Advanced Electronic Materials, Wiley, 1900582-1900582.  
Relevant PublicationAhmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Gautrot JE, Watkinson M, Becer CR and Krause S (2019). Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(2-oxazoline) as a Sensor Material for the Detection of Proteases with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Biomacromolecules vol. 20 (7), 2506-2514.  
Relevant PublicationWu F, Zhou B, Wang J, Zhong M, Das A, Watkinson M, Hing K, Zhang D-W and Krause S (2019). Photoelectrochemical Imaging System for the Mapping of Cell Surface Charges. Anal Chem 
Relevant PublicationAhmad N, Colak B, Zhang D-W, Gibbs MJ, Watkinson M, Becer CR, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2019). Peptide Cross-Linked Poly (Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel Films as Biosensor Coatings for the Detection of Collagenase. Sensors, MDPI vol. 19 (7) 


bullet iconZhang D, Papaioannou N, Titirici M-M and Krause S (2018). Photoelectrochemical Imaging Using Carbon Dots (CDs) Derived from Chitosan. Proceedings, MDPI vol. 2 (13) 
Relevant PublicationAhmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Becer CR, Watkinson M, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2018). Collagenase Biosensor Based on the Degradation of Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel Films. 
bullet iconTu Y, Li J, Zhang D-W, Briscoe J and Krause S (2018). The Effect of Semiconductor Morphology on the Spatial Resolution of ZnO Based Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors. EUROSENSORS 2018
Relevant PublicationTU Y, AHMAD N, BRISCOE J, ZHANG D and KRAUSE S (2018). Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors using ZnO Nanorods as the Sensor Substrate for Bioanalytical Applications. Analytical Chemistry, American Chemical Society 
bullet iconWang J, Du L, Krause S, Wu C and Wang P (2018). Surface modification and construction of LAPS towards biosensing applications. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical vol. 265, 161-173.  
bullet iconZHANG D, PAPAIOANNOU N, David NM, LUO H, GAO H, Tanase LC, Degousee T, Samori P, SAPELKIN A, FENWICK O, TITIRICI M and KRAUSE SK (2018). Photoelectrochemical response of carbon dots (CDs) derived from chitosan and their use in electrochemical imaging. Materials Horizons, Rsc 
bullet iconTU Y, CHEN S, LI X, GORBACIOVA J, GILLIN WP, KRAUSE S and BRISCOE J (2018). Control of oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanorods by annealing and their influence on ZnO/PEDOT:PSS diode behaviour. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Royal Society of Chemistry 
Relevant PublicationSchöning MJ, Wagner T, Poghossian A, Miyamoto K-I, Werner CF, Krause S and Yoshinobu T (2018). Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors for (Bio-)chemical Sensing and Imaging. Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry  295-308.  
Relevant PublicationYoshinobu T, Krause S, Miyamoto K-I, Werner CF, Poghossian A, Wagner T and Schöning MJ (2018). (Bio-)chemical Sensing and Imaging by LAPS and SPIM. Label-Free Biosensing  103-132.  


bullet iconZhang D, Wu F and KRAUSE SK (2017). LAPS and SPIM imaging using ITO coated glass as the substrate material. Analytical Chemistry, American Chemical Society 
Relevant PublicationWu F, Campos I, Zhang D and KRAUSE SK (2017). Biological imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Royal Society, The 
bullet iconZhang D and Krause S (2017). Image Detection of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae By Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors (LAPS). ECS Meeting Abstracts, The Electrochemical Society vol. MA2017-01 (38), 1770-1770.  
bullet iconWu F, Watkinson M and Krause S (2017). Electrochemical Imaging of Copper Contamination on Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a ‘Click’ Reaction with Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors and Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy. ECS Meeting Abstracts, The Electrochemical Society vol. MA2017-01 (38), 1769-1769.  
bullet iconWu F, Zhang DW, Wang J, Watkinson M and Krause S (2017). Copper Contamination of Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a “Click” Reaction Characterized with LAPS and SPIM. Langmuir vol. 33 (13), 3170-3177.  
bullet iconKrause S (2017). High-resolution impedance and potential imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors for bio-imaging applications. 


Relevant PublicationZhang DW, Wu F, Wang J, Watkinson M and KRAUSE SK (2016). Image detection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS). Electrochemistry Communications vol. 72, 41-45.  
bullet iconWang J, Campos I, Wu F, Zhu J, Sukhorukov GB, Palma M, Watkinson M and Krause S (2016). The effect of gold nanoparticles on the impedance of microcapsules visualized by scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Electrochimica Acta vol. 208, 39-46.  


bullet iconWang J, Wu F, Watkinson M, Zhu J and Krause S (2015). click Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces and Their Characterization Using Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors. Langmuir vol. 31 (35), 9646-9654.  
Relevant PublicationGibbs MJ, Biela A and Krause S (2015). α-Amylase sensor based on the degradation of oligosaccharide hydrogel films monitored with a quartz crystal sensor. Biosens Bioelectron vol. 67, 540-545.  
bullet iconZhang H, Yilmaz P, Ansari JO, Khan FF, Binions R, Krause S and Dunn S (2015). Incorporation of Ag nanowires in CuWO4 for improved visible light-induced photoanode performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry A vol. 3 (18), 9638-9644.  
Relevant PublicationBiela A, Watkinson M, Meier UC, Baker D, Giovannoni G, Becer CR and Krause S (2015). Disposable MMP-9 sensor based on the degradation of peptide cross-linked hydrogel films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors and Bioelectronics vol. 68, 660-667.  


Relevant PublicationWang J, Zhou Y, Watkinson M, Gautrot J and Krause S (2014). High-sensitivity light-addressable potentiometric sensors using silicon on sapphire functionalized with self-assembled organic monolayers. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Elsevier vol. 209, 230-236.  


Relevant PublicationDzaraini K, Norizan A, Krause S, Hunter C and Milanesi L (2013). Degradation behaviour of thin polymer films of poly (amide ester) hydrogel using quartz crystal microbalance. Advanced Materials Research vol. 812, 38-45.  


bullet iconZhang DW, Zhang FT, Cui YR, Deng QP, Krause S, Zhou YL and Zhang XX (2012). A label-free aptasensor for the sensitive and specific detection of cocaine using supramolecular aptamer fragments/target complex by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Talanta vol. 92, 65-71.  


Relevant PublicationZheng X, Cook JP, Watkinson M, Yang S, Douglas I, Rawlinson A and Krause S (2011). Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease. Faraday Discussions vol. 149, 37-47.  


Relevant PublicationChen L, Zhou Y, Jiang S, Kunze J, Schmuki P and Krause S (2010). High resolution LAPS and SPIM. Electrochemistry Communications vol. 12 (6), 758-760.  


Relevant PublicationKamarun D, Zheng XW, Milanesi L, Hunter CA and Krause S (2009). A peptide cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogel for the detection of human neutrophil elastase. ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA vol. 54 (22), 4985-4990.  
Relevant PublicationStair JL, Watkinson M and Krause S (2009). Sensor materials for the detection of proteases. Biosensors and Bioelectronics vol. 24 (7), 2113-2118.  
bullet iconSweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Selected Papers from the Second International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications, 2007. J MATER SCI-MATER EL vol. 20, 1-2.  
bullet iconSweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Editorial: Selected papers from the second international conference on optical, optoelectronic and photonic materials and applications, 2007. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics vol. 20 (SUPPL. 1) 


bullet iconChen L, Zhou Y, Krause S, Munoz AG, Kunze J and Schmuki P (2008). Repair of thin thermally grown silicon dioxide by anodic oxidation. Electrochimica Acta vol. 53 (8), 3395-3402.  


Relevant PublicationZhou Y, Jiang S, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Biosensor arrays based on the degradation of thin polymer films interrogated by scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy. Anal Chem vol. 79 (23), 8974-8978.  
bullet iconZhou Y, Chen L, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy using amorphous silicon photodiode structures. Anal Chem vol. 79 (16), 6208-6214.  


bullet iconKrause S, Moritz W, Talabani H, Xu M, Sabot A and Ensell G (2006). Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy - Resolution studies and polymer characterization. ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA vol. 51 (8-9), 1423-1430.  
Relevant PublicationZhou YL, Krause S, Chazalviel JN and McNeil CJ (2006). Biosensor arrays based on the degradation of thin polymer films interrogated by Scanning Photo-induced Impedance Microscopy. 
bullet iconKRAUSE SK, Fernandez-Sanchez C and McNeil CJ (2006). Sensors based on thin film degradation. Encyclopedia of Sensors  289-306.  


bullet iconMoritz W, Yoshinobu T, Finger F, Krause S, Martin-Fernandez M and Schoning MJ (2004). High resolution LAPS using amorphous silicon as the semiconductor material. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL vol. 103 (1-2), 436-441.  


bullet iconKRAUSE SK (2003). Impedance methods. Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Volume 3, Instrumentation and Electroanalytical Chemistry  196-229.  


Relevant PublicationSabot A and Krause S (2002). Simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance impedance and electrochemical impedance measurements. Investigation into the degradation of thin polymer films. Anal Chem vol. 74 (14), 3304-3311.  
bullet iconKrause S, Talabani H, Xu M, Moritz W and Griffiths J (2002). Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy - an impedance based imaging technique. ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA vol. 47 (13-14), 2143-2148.  


Relevant PublicationSumner C, Krause S, Sabot A, Turner K and McNeil CJ (2001). Biosensor based on enzyme-catalysed degradation of thin polymer films. BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS vol. 16 (9-12), 709-714.  
bullet iconMoritz W, Krause S, Roth U, Klimm D and Lippitz A (2001). Re-activation of an all solid state oxygen sensor. ANAL CHIM ACTA vol. 437 (2), 183-190.  
bullet iconKRAUSE SK, Sabot A and Sumner C (2001). Combined QCM and electrochemical impedance measurements for biosensor applications. Chemical and Biological Sensors and Analytical Methods II, ECS Conference, San Francisco
bullet iconWilkop T, Krause S, Nabok A, Ray AK and Yates R (2001). The detection of organic pollutants in water with calixarene coated electrodes., Editors: Moebius D and Miller R. 


Relevant PublicationSumner C, Sabot A, Turner K and Krause S (2000). A transducer based on enzyme-induced degradation of thin polymer films monitored by surface plasmon resonance. Anal Chem vol. 72 (21), 5225-5232.  
bullet iconMoritz W, Gerhardt I, Roden D, Xu M and Krause S (2000). Photocurrent measurements for laterally resolved interface characterization. FRESENIUS JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY vol. 367 (4), 329-333.  


bullet iconHo WO, Krause S, McNeil CJ, Pritchard JA, Armstrong RD, Athey D and Rawson K (1999). Electrochemical sensor for measurement of urea and creatinine in serum based on ac impedance measurement of enzyme-catalyzed polymer transformation. ANAL CHEM vol. 71 (10), 1940-1946.  


bullet iconMoritz W, Krause S, Bartholomäus L, Gabusjan T, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1998). Silicon-Based Sensor for Flourine Gas. ACS Symposium Series vol. 690, 119-129.  


Relevant PublicationMcNeil CJ, Athey D, Ball M, Ho WO, Krause S, Armstrong RD, Des Wright J and Rawson K (1995). Electrochemical Sensors Based on Impedance Measurement of Enzyme-Catalyzed Polymer Dissolution: Theory and Applications. Analytical Chemistry, American Chemical Society (ACS) vol. 67 (21), 3928-3935.  
bullet iconMoritz W, Krause S, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1995). Monitoring of HF and F2 using a field-effect sensor. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, Elsevier vol. 24 (1-3), 194-196.  


bullet iconKrause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1994). Improved long-term stability for an LaF3 based oxygen sensor. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, Elsevier vol. 18 (1-3), 148-154.  


bullet iconKrause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1992). A low-temperature oxygen sensor based on the Si/LaF3/Pt capacitive structure. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, Elsevier vol. 9 (3), 191-196.  


bullet iconBobrov PV, Tarantov YA, Krause S and Moritz W (1991). Chemical sensitivity of an ISFET with Ta2O5 membrane in strong acid and alkaline solutions. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, Elsevier vol. 3 (1), 75-81.  


solid heart iconGrants of specific relevance to the Centre for Bioengineering
solid heart icon3D Photoelectrochemical Imaging in Porous Light-Addressable Structures
Steffi Krause, Joseph Briscoe and Thomas Iskratsch
£202,248 EPSRC Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (01-02-2021 - 30-04-2023)
solid heart iconCombined LAPS and SICM for multimodal live cell imaging
Steffi Krause
£504,481 EPSRC Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (01-06-2018 - 28-02-2023)